环境搭建之更换软件源汇总(Ubuntu/pip/Anaconda/Docker等)


前言

众所周知,很多官方软件源默认都在国外,在国内下载不是一般的慢……

于是我们想到了通过国内的镜像站,来加速访问或下载等。

最近搭建环境,又折腾了一堆换源,于是又到处找觉得挺麻烦的。

正好这次就来汇总一下各种常用的换源好了。



系统 apt 换源

以 Ubuntu 为例:

首先备份原文件

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.bak

(有可能需要修改文件权限为可编辑)

sudo chmod 777 /etc/apt/sources.list

而后编辑文件

sudo vim /etc/apt/sources.list
# 或 sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

都没有的话可以先装个编辑器,或者

sudo echo "balabala" > /etc/apt/sources.list

其中的 balabala 是下面的内容。

清华 tuna 源

详见 https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/help/ubuntu/

本镜像仅包含 32/64 位 x86 架构处理器的软件包,在 ARM(arm64, armhf)、PowerPC(ppc64el)、RISC-V(riscv64) 和 S390x 等架构的设备上(对应官方源为ports.ubuntu.com)请使用 ubuntu-ports 镜像

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS

# 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse

# 预发布软件源,不建议启用
# deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

Ubuntu 16.04 LTS

# 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted universe multiverse

# 预发布软件源,不建议启用
# deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

Ubuntu 20.04 LTS

# 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-security main restricted universe multiverse

# 预发布软件源,不建议启用
# deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ focal-proposed main restricted universe multiverse     

Ubuntu Ports

本镜像仅包含 arm64 armhf ppc64el riscv64 s390x 架构的软件包。

(比如在 NVIDIA Jetson TX2 等嵌入式系统上跑的)

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS:

# 默认注释了源码镜像以提高 apt update 速度,如有需要可自行取消注释
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse

# 预发布软件源,不建议启用
# deb https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
# deb-src https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu-ports/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

其他版本也类似,加个 /ubuntu-ports/ 即可。

Alpine Linux

在终端执行下面的语句。

sed -i 's/dl-cdn.alpinelinux.org/mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/g' /etc/apk/repositories

阿里源

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS

deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

163源

Ubuntu 18.04 LTS

deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.163.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse

换好源后更新源

sudo apt-get update

修复损坏的软件包,尝试卸载出错的包,重新安装正确版本的。

sudo apt-get -f install

更新软件

sudo apt-get upgrade

或者安装软件……


Pypi (pip) 换源

清华 tuna 源

临时安装时:

pip install -i https://pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/simple some-package

some-package 为模块名。

设为默认:

pip install -i https://pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/simple pip -U
pip config set global.index-url https://pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/simple

或者,Linux 或 MacOS 下修改 ~/.pip/pip.conf,若没有此文件则创建一个新的。

mkdir ~/.pip
cd ~/.pip
vim pip.conf

Windows 下:

  1. 文件管理器文件路径地址栏敲:%HOMEPATH% 回车,快速进入 C:\Users\用户名\ 文件夹中(用户目录)
  2. 新建 pip 文件夹并在文件夹中新建 pip.ini 配置文件
  3. 新增 pip.ini 配置文件内容

文件内容如下。

[global]
index-url = https://pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/simple
[install]
use-mirrors = true
mirrors = https://pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/simple
trusted-host = pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn

其他源


Anaconda 换源

参考 https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/help/anaconda/

Anaconda 安装包可以到 https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/archive/ 下载。

TUNA 还提供了 Anaconda 仓库与第三方源(conda-forge、msys2、pytorch等,查看完整列表)的镜像,各系统都可以通过修改用户目录下的 .condarc 文件。Windows 用户无法直接创建名为 .condarc 的文件,可先执行 conda config --set show_channel_urls yes 生成该文件之后再修改。

channels:
  - defaults
show_channel_urls: true
channel_alias: https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda
default_channels:
  - https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/pkgs/main
  - https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/pkgs/free
  - https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/pkgs/r
  - https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/pkgs/pro
  - https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/pkgs/msys2
custom_channels:
  conda-forge: https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud
  msys2: https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud
  bioconda: https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud
  menpo: https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud
  pytorch: https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud
  simpleitk: https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud

即可添加 Anaconda Python 免费仓库。

运行 conda clean -i 清除索引缓存,保证用的是镜像站提供的索引。

运行 conda create -n myenv numpy 测试一下吧。

或者

conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/pkgs/free/
conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/pkgs/main/
# 设置搜索时显示通道地址
conda config --set show_channel_urls yes

conda 额外库:

# pytorch
conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud/pytorch/
# 安装时PyTorch,官网给的安装命令需要去掉最后的-c pytorch,才能使用清华源
# conda-forge
conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud/conda-forge/
# msys2
conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud/msys2/
# bioconda
conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud/bioconda/
# menpo
conda config --add channels https://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/anaconda/cloud/menpo/
# 设置搜索时显示通道地址
conda config --set show_channel_urls yes

Docker 换源

参考之前写的 Docker 安装及常用命令

编辑文件

Linux 下,编辑此文件,如果没有则新建。

sudo vim /etc/docker/daemon.json

Windows 下文件为

%programdata%\docker\config\daemon.json

内容可以为多个镜像

{
  "registry-mirrors": [
    "https://docker.mirrors.ustc.edu.cn",
    "https://dockerhub.azk8s.cn/",
    "http://hub-mirror.c.163.com"
  ]
}

配置完之后重启服务

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl restart docker

检查是否生效

docker info

看最后的 Registry Mirrors 里有没有添加成功。


大概就先收集这么多吧(


文章作者: MiaoTony
版权声明: 本博客所有文章除特別声明外,均采用 CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 许可协议。转载请注明来源 MiaoTony !
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